Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (March 27, 1845 – 10 February 1923) is a German physicist who was the first recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics, in 1901, for his discovery of X-rays, which marks the beginning era of modern physics and revolutionized diagnostic medicine.
Röntgen studied at the ETH Zurich and then professor of physics at the University of Strasbourg (1876-79), Giessen (1879-88), Wurzburg (1888-1900), and Munich (1900-20). His research also included work on elasticity, capillary movement of fluids, specific heats of gases, conduction of heat in crystals, absorption of heat by gases, and piezoelectricity.
In 1895, while experimenting with electric current flow and partially evacuated glass tube (cathode ray tube), Röntgen observed that a nearby piece of barium release platinosianida ray tube when it is operated. He formulated the theory that when the cathode rays (electrons) penetrate the wall of glass tube, some unknown form of radiation that crosses the room, penetrating chemicals, and cause fluorescence. Further observations revealed that the paper, wood, and aluminum, among other materials, are transparent to this new form of radiation. He found that it affected photographic plates, and, since no real show some properties of light, such as reflection or refraction, he mistakenly thought that the rays were unrelated to light. In view of the uncertain nature of it, he called the phenomenon X radiation, though also known as X-ray radiation. He took the first X-ray photography, from the inside of metal objects and bones of her hand.
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